Friday, October 7, 2011

Health Effects of Vitamins

I. Vitamin A (Contributed by Kyle J. Norton, posted with permission)
Vitamin A also known as Vitamin A Retinol,  is a yellow, fat-soluble substance, and essential for growth and life and producing pigments in the eye's retina for scotopic vision (low-light vision). The vital vitamin come from 2 types of foods
A. Vitamin A Health Benefits, Deficiency and toxicity
1. Vitamin A (Retinol and Carotenes) and Daily requirements
2. Health Benefits of Vitamin A - Type 1 diabetes
3. Vitamins A - Prevention of morbidity and mortality in infants
4. Vitamin A and Anti-aging 
5. Vitamin A and Breast cancer
6. Vitamin A and Vision Health
7. Vitamin A and Colorectal Cancer
8. The importance of vitamin A in nutrition
9. Vitamin A and Skin tumors
10. Vitamin A and Ear defect in fetus
11. Vitamin A and Oral cancer
12. Vitamin A and Cervical cancer
13. Vitamin A and Osteoporosis
14. Vitamin A and Prevention of mortality and short- and long-term morbidity in very low birthweight infants
15. Vitamin A and Pregnancy and breastfeeding women
16. Vitamin A and The development of Fetus and Newborn
17. Vitamin A and Clefting
18. Vitamin A and Skin cancer
19. Vitamin A and Bone and teeth
20. Vitamin A and Immunity as antioxidants
21. Vitamin A and Preventing morbidity and mortality
22. Vitamin A and Gastric cancer 
23. Vitamin A and Reduced risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection
24. Vitamin A and Reproductive System
25. Vitamin A Against arsenic-induced uterine toxicity
26. Vitamin A and Treating measles and reduced risk of mortality and pneumonia-specific mortality
27. Vitamin A deficiency and Hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease
28. Vitamin A deficiency and Bilateral corneal ulceration
29. Vitamin A deficiency and Xerophthalmia
30. Vitamin A deficiency and Cirrhotic patients
31. Vitamin A deficiency and Spatial memory deficits
32. Vitamin A deficiency and Giardia lamblia infection
33. Vitamin A deficiency and complications of biliopancreatic diversion?
34. Vitamin A deficiency and Cerebellar hypoplasia
35. Vitamin A deficiency and Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)
36. Vitamin A deficiency and Chronic liver disease
37. Vitamin A deficiency and High-risk area for esophageal cancer 
38. Vitamin A deficiency and Air way infection 
39. Vitamin A deficiency and Cardiometabolic risk 
40. Vitamin A deficiency and Skin diseases 
41. Vitamin A deficiency and Hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease
42. Vitamin A toxicity (When overdoses over a prolonged period of time): 
42.1. Vitamin A toxicity: Possible involvement of vitamin a in testicular toxicity
42.2. Vitamin A toxicity: Elevated liver enzymes 
42.3. Vitamin A toxicity: Damage of the central nervous system 
42.4. Vitamin A toxicity: Metabolic impairment 
42.5. Other diseases due to vitamin A toxicity
42.6. Vitamin A toxicity: Heart rate, brain structural and functional changes, minor physical anomalies, and persistent aggression 
42.7. Vitamin A toxicity: Hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury 
42.8. Vitamin A toxicity: Mitochondrial dysfunction and altering cerebral cortex and/or cerebellum-dependent behavior 
42.9. Vitamin A toxicity: Hyperostotic and destructive osteoarthritis 
42.10. Vitamin A toxicity: Chronic liver disease

B. Retinol Health Benefits
Retinol, one of the animal forms of vitamin A, is a yellow, fat-soluble substance, a diterpenoid and an alcohol converted to vitamin A and and the retinyl ester derivative of the alcohol stored mostly in liver, when eating animal food sources, such as liver and egg yolk. When converted to retinoic acid, vitamin A is essential for skin health, teeth remineralization, bone growth.and the process of cell differentiation, hence, the growth and development of embryos Retinoic acid via the retinoic acid receptor.
 Retinol (The animal forms of vitamin A)

C.  Carotenes Health Benefits
Carotenes, including alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, gamma-carotene, and
xanthophyl beta- cryptoxanthin, possess the enzyme required to convert these compounds to retinal. Carotenes are the group of orange pigments phytochemical belonging to the class of
Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids), found abundantly in carrots, pumpkins, maize,
tangerine, orange, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, etc.
and contained many health benefits(1)
Recommend dosages for Female From 14 years old and up 700 -1700 mcg/day
and Male From 14 years old and Up 900 to 3000 mcg/day
1. Carotenoids and Chronic leg ulcers
2. Carotenoids and Anti-inflammatory, and Antiproliferative Effects 
3. Carotenoids and cancers
4. Carotenoids
5. Carotenoids and Chronic leg ulcers
6. Carotenoids and Coronary heart disease
7. Carotenoids and Lung cancer
8. Carotenoids and Anti stroke

D. Vitamin A and Medication Interaction

II.  B Vitamins
A. Vitamin B1 (Contributed by Kyle J. Norton, posted with permission)
1. Vitamin B1 and Diabetes and Heart Disease 
2. Vitamin B1(Thiamine) and Inflammatory Diseases 
3. Vitamin B1 deficiency and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome 
4. Vitamin B1 and Wilson's disease 
5. Vitamin B1 and acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure 
6. Vitamin B1 deficiency and Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) 
7. Vitamin B1 and neurodegenerative disease pathophysiology 
8. Vitamin B1 and iron-catalyzed oxidative damage in hepatocytes 
9. Vitamin B1 and Type II diabetes
10. Vitamin B1 against protein damage by glycation, oxidation and nitration 
11. Thiamine and the prevention of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders 
12. Vitamin B1 and diastolic dysfunction and heart failure 
13. Vitamin B1 and dyslipidemia and Advanced glycation of plasma protein 
14. Severe lactic acidosis and Vitamin B1 deficiency 
15. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) and acid tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes 
16. Life-threatening of vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency in infants 
17. B1 and various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract 
18. Vitamin B1 deficiency and the cause of some tumors 
19. Vitamin B1 and Alzheimer's disease 
20. Vitamin B1 and Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome 
21. Vitamin B1 deficiency and reversible cor pulmonale 
22. Thiamine and Parkinson's disease 
23. Vitamin B1 deficiency with cardiopathy and metabolic acidosis 
24. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) and acid tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes
25. Vitamin B1 and glucose metabolism and vascular disease
26. Vitamin B1(Thiamine) in diabetic complications  

B.2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
1. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and defective Gene ACAD9
2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and Central nervous system and muscle involvement
3. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and gastrointestinal function 

 Contributed by Kyle J. Norton, posted with permission)
1. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and defective Gene ACAD9 
2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and Central nervous system and muscle involvement 
3. Vitamin B2 and migraine 
4. Vitamin B2 and psychomotor function 
5. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and gastrointestinal function 
6. Riboflavin deficiency and the effects on iron utilization and loss 
7. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and Effect of physical activity 
8. Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health
9. Riboflavin and gastrointestinal (GI) morphology in adult 
10. Vitamin B2 and Autism
11. Riboflavin and the development and cell fate
12. Vitamin B2 and recurrent rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure
13. Vitamin B2 and depression 
14. Vitamin B2 and Breast cancer
15. Vitamin B2 and congenital heart defects
16. Vitamin B2 and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
17. Vitamin B2 and activity of enzymes
18. Riboflavin deficiency and preeclampsia
19. Riboflavin and acute ischaemic stroke
20. Vitamin B2 and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
21. Vitamin B2 deficiency and Structural-functional damage to cellular membranes
22. Riboflavin-deficient and Trichinella spiralis-induced stresses on plasma corticosterone associated with spermatogenesis

B.3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
1. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) and Life span Increasing
2. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) and hyperpigmentation
3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) and Melasma 

Contributed by Kyle J. Norton, posted with permission)
1. Vitamin B3 and Topical nicotinamide against both UVB and UVA 
2. Vitamin B3 and immune suppressive effects 
3. Vitamin B3 and Niacinamide/glycerin moisturizers 
4. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine, a novel niacinamide derivative, retains high antioxidant activity and inhibits skin pigmentation
5. Vitamin B3 and Aging 
6. Niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer
7. NAD+ and NADH in cellular functions and cell death
8. NAD+ metabolism in health and disease
9. NAD+ metabolism and NAD(+)-dependent enzymes and neurological diseases
10. Vitamin B3 deficiency Pellagra
11. Pellagra: dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea
12. Anorexia nervosa and Pellagra
13. Photoprotective effects of nicotinamide
14. Pellagra and benign symmetrical lipomatosis associated with alcoholism
15. Pellagra associated with esophageal carcinoma and alcoholism
16. Rapidly progressing bilateral cataracts in a patient with beta thalassemia and pellagra
17. Niacin and recurrent unipolar depressive disorder
18. Niacin and atheroprotective HDL cholesterol

B.5. Vitamin B5
1. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) and Diabetic ulceration
2. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) and Wound healing processes
3. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) and Colonic anastomoses 

 Contributed by Kyle J. Norton, posted with permission)
1. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) and Wound healing processes 
2. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) and Diabetic ulceration 
3. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) and Colonic anastomoses 
4. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) and Wound healing processes 
5. Excessive vitamin B5 side effects
6. Calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium intoxication on reproductive organs
7. The effect of pantothenic acid deficiency on skin tissues
8. Vitamin B5 and thinning hair
9. Vitamin B5 and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration
10. Pantothenic acid on testicular function
11. Pantothenic acid as a weight-reducing agent
12. Pantothenate deficiency and acetate addition
13. Pantothenate deficiency and metabolic response 
14. Vitamin B5 and sexual maturity
15. The pantothenic acid (PA) and coenzyme A (CoA)
16. Adrenal cortex functional activity in pantothenate deficiency
17. Duodenal lesions produced by pantothenic acid deficiency
18. Interactions of thiamin, riboflavin, and other B-vitamins
19. Pantothenic acid, coenzyme A, and human chronic ulcerative and granulomatous colitis
20.Effect of prenatal and neonatal pantothenic acid deficiency on rat intestinal phosphatases 

B.6. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Link1. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and Epilepsy during Childhood.
2. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and Memory Improvements
3. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine ) and Cancer

B.9. Folate (Folic Acids)
1. Folate (folic acids) and Anemia among HIV-infected children
2. Folate and Cerebral folate deficiency syndromes
3. Folate and Mitochondrial disease

B.12 Vitamin B12
1. Vitamin B12 deficiency - A worldwide problem
2. Vitamin B12 and Older Adults
3. Vitamin B12 and Neurotrophic action

III. Vitamin C

1. Vitamin C and Common cold
2. Vitamin C and asthma.
3. Vitamin C and E as Antioxidants
4. Vitamin C, E and Tobacco Smoke
5. Vitamin C and Cancer
6. Vitamin C and Colon Cancer
7. Vitamin C and DNA Damage
8. Vitamin C and Wound healing
9. Vitamin C and Neurotrophic effect
10. Vitamin C and Vasoactive intestinal peptide synthesis
11. Vitamin C deficiency and chronic ultraviolet-B exposure
12. Vitamin C and Glaucoma
13. Vitamin C and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA)
14. Vitamin C and cellular energy metabolism
15. Vitamin C and alcohol induced oxidative stress

IV. Vitamin D (Contributed by Kyle J. Norton, posted with permission)
1. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular disease
2. Vitamin D and Obesity
3. Vitamin D deficiency associated with self-neglect
4. Vitamin D and Hyperparathyroidism
5. Vitamin D and Rheumatoid arthritis
6. Vitamin D and Hypertension
7. Vitamin D and Autoimmune diseases
8. Vitamin D and Chronic kidney disease
9. Vitamin D and Cognition
10. Vitamin D and Stroke
11. Vitamin D and Osteoporosis
12. Vitamin D and Falls and Fractures
13. Vitamin D and Muscle Strength
14. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer
15. Vitamin D and Prostate Cancers
16. Vitamin D and Colon Cancer
17. Vitamin D and Type 2 diabetes
18. Vitamin D and Multiple sclerosis
19. Vitamin D and Type I diabetes
20. Vitamin D and allergic diseases
21. Vitamin D and inflammation
22. Vitamin D and prevention of periodontal ligament
23. Vitamin D and Muscle atrophy
24. Vitamin D and Longevity

LinkV. Vitamin E
1. Vitamin C and E as Antioxidants
2. Vitamin C, E and Tobacco Smoke
3. Vitamin E and Anxiety
4. Vitamin E and Osteroporosis
5. Vitamin E and Stress
6. Vitamin E and Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
7. Vitamin E and Multiple cardiovascular risk factors
8. Vitamin E and Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

VI. Vitamin K
1. Vitamin K and Osteoporosis
2. Vitamin K and Fracture prevention
3. Vitamin K and Degenerative diseases of ageing
4. Vitamin K and Osteopenia
5. Vitamin K supplementation and progression of Coronary artery calcification
6. Vitamin K and Bone mineral density
7. Vitamin D-vitamin K interaction
8. Vitamin K and Testosterone production
9. Vitamin K and Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet agents
10. Vitamin K antagonists
11. Vitamin K antagonists and prevention of thromboembolism
12. Vitamin K antagonists and children with heart diseases

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